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The genetic code



The genetic code is the set of correspondences between the nucleic acid triplets (codons) and amino acids in the primary sequences of ribosomaly produced proteins. The code is universal. With the exception of some small variabilities, this rule prescribes how to decode genes into proteins in all organisms on Earth (and beyond?). For example, every protein synthesis on the ribosome starts with AUG codon, which encodes methionine (Met), CCA will code for proline (Pro), CAC for histidine (His), GUA for valine (Val), etc.

The amino acids encoded by the gene sequences are called coded or canonical amino acid, thus obeying the rule, canon. Each of these amino acids may have its own peculiarities. We have summarized some interesting information and references for the canonical amino acids in dedicated sections. Just click away.

Alanine
Ala/A


GCT, GCC,
GCA, GCG

Arginine
Arg/R


CGT, CGC, CGA,
CGG, AGA, AGG

Asparagine
Asn,N


AAT, AAC

Aspartate
Asp/D


GAT, GAC

Cysteine
Cys/C


TGT, TGC

Glutamate
Glu/E


GAA, GAG

Glutamine
Gln/Q


CAA, CAG

Glycine
Gly/G


GGT, GGC,
GGA, GGG

Histidine
His/H


CAT, CAC

Isoleucine
Ile/I


ATT, ATC, ATA

Leucine
Leu/L


CTT, CTC, CTA,
CTG, TTA, TTG

Lysine
Lys/K


AAA, AAG

Methionine
Met/M


ATG

Phenylalanine
Phe/F


TTT, TTC

Proline
Pro/P


CCT, CCC,
CCA, CCG

Serine
Ser/S


TCT, TCC, TCA,
TCG, AGT, AGC

Threonine
Thr/T


ACT, ACC,
ACA, ACG

Tryptophan
Trp/W


TGG

Tyrosine
Tyr/Y


TAT, TAC

Valine
Val/V


GTT, GTC,
GTA,GTG